A loaf of bread made in the first century AD, which was discovered at Pompeii, preserved for centuries in the volcanic ashes of Mount Vesuvius. The markings visible on the top are made from a Roman bread stamp, which bakeries were required to use in order to mark the source of the loaves, and to prevent fraud. (via Ridiculously Interesting)
(sigh) I’ve seen these before, but this one’s particularly beautiful.
I feel like I’m supposed to be marveling over the fact that this is a loaf of bread that’s been preserved for thousands of years, and don’t get me wrong, that’s hella cool. But honestly, I’m mostly struck by the unexpected news that “bread fraud” was apparently once a serious concern.
Bread Fraud was a huge thing, Bread was provided to the Roman people by the government - bakers were given grain to make the free bread, but some of them stole the government grain to use in other baked goods and would add various substitutes, like sawdust or even worse things, to the bread instead. So if people complained that their free bread was not proper bread, the stamp told them exactly whose bakery they ought to burn down.
Bread stamps continued to be used at least until the Medieval period in Europe. Any commercially sold bread had to be stamped with an official seal to identify the baker to show that it complied with all rules and regulations about size, price, and quality. This way, rotten or undersized loaves could be traced back to the baker. Bakers could be pilloried, sent down the streets in a hurdle cart with the offending loaf tied around their neck, fined, or forbidden to engage in baking commercially ever again in that city. There are records of a baker in London being sent on a hurdle cart because he used an iron rod to increase the weight of his loaves, and another who wrapped rotten dough with fresh who was pilloried. Any baker hurdled three times had to move to a new city if they wanted to continue baking.
If you have made bread, you are probably familiar with a molding board. It’s a flat board used to shape the bread. Clever fraudsters came up with a molding board that had a little hole drilled into it that wasn’t easily noticed. A customer would buy his dough by weight, and then the baker would force some of that dough through the hole, so they could sell and underweight loaf and use the stolen dough to bake new loafs to sell. Molding boards ended up being banned in London after nine different bakers were caught doing this. There were also instances of grain sellers withholding grain to create an artificial scarcity drive up the price of that, and things like bread.
Bread, being one of the main things that literally everyone ate in many parts of the world, ended up with a plethora of rules and regulations. Bakers were probably no more likely to commit fraud than anyone else, but there were so many of them, that we ended up with lots and lots of rules and records of people being shifty.
Check out Fabulous Feasts: Medieval Cookery and Ceremony by Madeleine Pelner Cosman for a whole chapter on food laws as they existed in about 1400. Plus the color plates are fantastic.
Bread is serious fucking business.
Man the bread fandom don’t put up with shit at all.
""A dude who can walk into any kitchen in the world and make bread is COMPLETELY RAW"
Back in prehistoric times it was just a free for all. God was putting antlers on everything and made 7 foot tall gophers with wings, it was a mess.
Look at this poor, impractical bastard.
The prehistoric era was God’s Deviantart stage.
Now he just hides all of his stupid-looking OCs in the ocean where no one can find them.
I can’t not reblog this
This is what happens for real when I can’t find the right words.
Horse Tornado is the only phrase I will use from now on
my brother forgot the word so he said “leg elbow” one time
Someone bring me a horse tornando.
“Intelligence work has one moral law—it is justified by results.”
-John Le Carre, The Spy Who Came In From The Cold. (10)
Spying is a difficult business. Writing about spies with any accuracy is also an incredibly difficult business; this is why the foundational giants of the genre from Ian Fleming to John Le Carre have been ex-intelligence. Without that background, it can be easy to misunderstand that the ability to be a spy comes from the tradecraft and the training. It’s common among writers to build the character first, then give them their skill set. While this will work for a vast number of different character archetypes, functional spies require a fairly specific outlook and it is developed by a specific type of background though that comes from a generic set of circumstances.
Spies can’t be good people and that’s okay, because good people can’t be spies.
We are more than the worst thing that’s ever
happened to us. All of us need to stop apologizing
for having been to hell and come back breathing.
Your bad dreams are battle scars.
What doesn’t kill you cuts you fucking deep
but scars are just skin growing back
thicker when it heals.
Clementine von Radics (via samprincesschester)
The wolves are coming out tonight. Hear their howls on the breeze, and tremble at the noise as they get in your garbage cans at 4:30 a.m.
"I’m sorry, that was mean."
sighhhh feminism isn’t about hating all men and wanting to destroy them that’s just my own personal hobby
It’s what on the inside that counts
Let us number the ones which are illegal, and learn their names.
Note, there is a potential that I’ve got some of the names wrong. I’m not exactly the best person to ask about guns…nor do I particularly like them.
Hauge Conventions are the international legislations which dictate what form of ammunition/weaponry is allowed to be used during warfare. Most hollow point, soft point, and deliberately fragmentary rounds are illegal for warfare…but are allowed to be used in the civilian market, especially by police forces.
HOWEVER, higher velocity bullets (such as those common for usage in NATO country rifles) have a nasty tendency to fragment ‘by accident’ when they make impact.
Bottom row, left to right: Lead (not jacketed)- legal to own and allowed under the Hauge Conventions. The one pictured is likely for a revolver, such as the .455 British Service Webley.
I want to say the second one is a wadcutter (a form of revolver ammuntion used mostly for target shooting, as it punches really big ‘neat’ holes in things)
Next up from bottom, left to right: Glaser Safety Shot- US police forces use them, illegal under Hauge Conventions. The one pictured is copper jacketed. They’re essentially a marble capped container filled with buckshot.
Copper jacketed- Not entirely certain if it’s a hollow point or not.
Third row from bottom, left to right: Both forms of ammo seen on this row are banned under the Hauge Conventions. The one of the left appears both to be developed to be a hollow nose AND fragment…where as the other is a fragmentary round.
I’m actually interested, in the one on the right, given that you more commonly see ‘buckshot’ within shotgun rounds.
Fourth row from bottom: Rifle rounds, the lot of them. Other than that, I’m not certain on identifying them. One on the right is, once again, developed specifically to fragment, making it illegal under the Hauge Conventions.
Fifth row from the bottom, left to right: Copper jacketed- allowed under the Hauge Conventions. Likely for a 9mm pistol.
Hollow point- though given how deep the hollow is, I’m wondering if there’s not something specific to why it’s such a deep point.
Soft point- The metal at the top is thinner than the remainder of the body, the yellow ‘dot’ at the top is probably silicone. On impact, the tip of the bullet will expand out, increasing the caliber of the bullet drastically. Illegal under the Hauge Conventions
Top row, left to right: Again, this row is all rifle rounds of some variation or another.
I have no idea what the one on the far left is. It looks like a tracer round of some variation, but I’m not certain enough to say.
Fully jacketed (likely steel) bullet- legal to use under the Hauge Conventions.
A wooden…rifle round….I’m mildly confused and can’t make comment on legality, not knowing caliber and bullet velocity (EDIT: I have now been helpfully informed that it’s a training bullet for assault rifles, please see the ask above this post for a better explanation. Thank you again!)
Many classic horror icons and other disturbing creatures share common characteristics. Pale skin, dark, sunken eyes, elongated faces, sharp teeth, and the like. These images inspire horror and revulsion in many, and with good reason. The characteristics shared by these faces are imprinted in the human mind.
Many things frighten humans instinctively. The fear is natural, and does not need to be reinforced in order to terrify. The fears are species-wide, stemming from dark times in the past when lightning could mean the burning of your tree home, predators could be hiding in the dark, heights could make poor footing lethal, and a spider or snake bite could mean certain death.
The question you have to ask yourself is this:
What happened, deep in the hidden eras before history began, that could effect the entire human race so evenly as to give the entire species a deep, instinctual, and lasting fear of pale beings with dark, sunken eyes, razor sharp teeth, and elongated faces?
To be honest that last question frightened me more that the picture.
That question is what always catches me and makes me want to reblog this